Ecology has many subdivisions: landscape ecology, macroecology, biodiversity informatics, and the relatively recent macrosystems ecology.

Landscape and spacial ecology, which studies how the structure and function of landscapes vary over scales, emerged in the 1970s. 20 years later, macroecology and biodiversity informatics made a debut. While macroecology examines the mechanisms that underlie ecological patterns across species, communities, and the globe, biodiversity informatics is a data-intensive approach of exploring macroscale patterns such as range dynamics over time.

Macrosystems ecology emerged in the 1990s and is specifically focused on mechanistic ecological phenomena at regional to continental levels. Concentrating on climate and land usage, which changes rapidly at large scales, macrosystems ecology requires large, collaborative groups and relies heavily on dynamic models that illustrate changes over time.  The discipline studies how dynamics interact at different scales, such as: local, macroscale (i.e. cross-scale interaction, cross-scale emergence, or macroscale feedback loops), or global (i.e. teleconnection).



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